Hypotheses There are multiple aspects of sex and contraceptive use. Also, some evidence has suggested that even though black women have sex earlier than their peers, they have more negative attitudes about sex Barber et al. The journal component of the survey concluded in January , resulting in 57, weekly interviews. Provider bias in contraceptive counseling Dehlendorf et al. Sexual behavior encompasses the number of distinct sexual partners and frequency of sexual intercourse.
Also, some evidence has suggested that even though black women have sex earlier than their peers, they have more negative attitudes about sex Barber et al. At its inception, the U. Religious doctrine also tends to be negative toward contraception, but evidence is mixed about whether religiosity affects contraceptive use among those young people who have sex Manlove et al. An in-depth study of class and sexual behavior among college women found that young women from more-advantaged social backgrounds, who also had higher academic aspirations, delayed serious relationships and pregnancy in explicit recognition that their opportunity costs were high Armstrong and Hamilton The journal component of the survey concluded in January , resulting in 57, weekly interviews. This notion is supported by an empirical study of young black women who themselves said that gender imbalance was a reason they tolerated refusal to use condoms and nonmonogamous sexual behavior in their male partners Ferguson et al. Among women of all ages, the unintended pregnancy rate for blacks is more than twice that of whites Finer and Zolna , as is the percentage of unintended births Mosher et al. Less use of highly effective contraceptive methods. For example, researchers have posited that poor women have more serious relationships at younger ages, which contributes to their higher risk of early pregnancy Edin and Kefalas , and that black women discontinue their contraceptive methods more frequently than other women Hammerslough ; Trussell and Vaughan Similarly, we consider not only whether any contraception is used but also the method, method switches, method discontinuation, and so on. The research literature has suggested that 1 young women see their mothers or women in their neighborhoods as role models and imitate their behavior Axinn and Thornton ; Brewster ; Newcomer and Udry ; Thornton and Camburn ; 2 the often lower levels of parental supervision in disadvantaged households permit earlier and riskier sexual behavior Meade et al. Poverty-related structural disadvantages in black neighborhoods—such as lower-quality schools, fewer churches, fewer community centers or associations, and generally less-cohesive local networks—may contribute to so-called ghetto-related behaviors, including teen and nonmarital pregnancy, among residents Anderson ; Wilson This rich set of data allows, for the first time, an investigation of how race and other sociodemographic characteristics—both separately and in tandem—are related to dynamic pregnancy-related behaviors. We restrict our analyses to the first 12 months of the study, when response rates were highest. Provider bias in contraceptive counseling Dehlendorf et al. The first component of data collection was a face-to-face baseline interview conducted between March and July , assessing sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes, relationship characteristics and history, contraceptive use, and pregnancy history. These behaviors then set the stage for future behavior in adulthood. Please select one or more groups: Hypothesis 4 Contraceptive Use and Method Instability: Economic Opportunity and Attainment Because of higher rates of poverty, lower-quality early education, greater labor market discrimination, and residence in more-disadvantaged neighborhoods, black women tend to have less education, lower employment rates, and fewer opportunities for economic attainment than white women Avery and Rendall ; Conley ; Isaacs ; Oliver and Shapiro ; Orr ; Proctor and Dalaker Race was measured with the following question: These strong preferences for delaying childbearing and marriage translate to contraceptive vigilance, given that the vast majority of young women have had sex by their early 20s Finer and Philbin Young women with these experiences may seek out romantic relationships as an escape from a harsh life Cavanagh et al. Family and Early-Life Experiences Compared with their more-advantaged counterparts, young women from disadvantaged backgrounds e. Religiosity may have a differential racial impact on both young sex and contraceptive use. The uncertainty and instability endemic to concentrated poverty Gottschalk and Moffitt ; Western et al.
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