This greatly increases the chances of conception. Most currently live in established marine parks , where boats must travel at a restricted speed and mesh net fishing is restricted. For a population to remain stable, 95 per cent of adults must survive the span of one year. Each article also includes numerous full-color photographs, charts, and diagrams. Indonesia lists dugongs as a protected species,  however protection is not always enforced and souvenir products made from dugong parts can be openly found in markets in Bali. In the Philippines, dugongs are thought to bring bad luck, and parts of them are used to ward against evil spirits.
The recovery of seagrass meadows and the spread of seagrass into new areas, or areas where it has been destroyed, can take over a decade. Most measures for protection involve restricting activities such as trawling in areas containing seagrass meadows, with little to no action on pollutants originating from land. Kenya has passed legislation banning the hunting of dugongs and restricting trawling, but the dugong is not yet listed under Kenya's Wildlife Act for endangered species. The nostrils are located on top of the head and can be closed using valves. In some areas water salinity is increased due to wastewater , and it is unknown how much salinity seagrass can withstand. Further disappearances are likely. Most issues with industrial fishing occur in deeper waters where dugong populations are low, with local fishing being the main risk in shallower waters. There is evidence that dugongs actively alter seagrass species compositions at local levels. Most currently live in established marine parks , where boats must travel at a restricted speed and mesh net fishing is restricted. While international cooperation to form a conservative unit has been undertaken,  socio-political needs are an impediment to dugong conservation in many developing countries. Different sounds have been observed with different amplitudes and frequencies, implying different purposes. In many countries, dugong numbers have never been surveyed. Smaller populations exist up the coast, including one in Ashmore reef. Current populations in this area are extremely small, numbering 50 and below, and it is thought likely they will become extinct. As the anthropologist A. Many marine parks have been established on the African coast of the Red Sea, and the Egyptian Gulf of Aqaba is fully protected. It has been observed that shallow waters are used as sites for calving, minimising the risk of predation. They also have a strong tactile sense , and feel their surroundings with their long sensitive bristles. This does not apply to dugongs in tropical areas, in which faecal evidence indicates that invertebrates are not eaten. This leaves furrows in the sand in their path. It has been seen to cause issues in areas such as Hainan due to environmental degradation. On Aragusuku Island , large quantities of skulls are preserved at an utaki that outsiders are strictly forbidden to enter. The two extant families of sirenians are thought to have diverged in the mid-Eocene, after which the dugongs and their closest relative, the Steller's sea cow , split off from a common ancestor in the Miocene. Evolution of sirenians The word "dugong" derives from the Malay duyung, both meaning "lady of the sea". This is the most significant negative factor affecting seagrass. The spine has between 57 and 60 vertebrae. The full dental formula of dugongs is 2.
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