Analysis of the mtDNA showed that the three adult males belonged to the same maternal lineage, while the three adult females belonged to different ones. The consensus on their behaviour ends there. This would be counter to strict versions of the recent African origin theory , since it would imply that at least part of the genome of Europeans would descend from Neanderthals. Most available evidence suggests they were apex predators ,  and fed on red deer , reindeer , ibex , wild boar , aurochs and on occasion mammoth , straight-tusked elephant and rhinoceros. When Neanderthal ancestors left Africa potentially as early as over , ago they adapted to the pathogens in their European environment, unlike modern humans who adapted to African pathogens. Flower pollen on the body of pre-Neanderthal Shanidar 4 , Iraq, had in been argued to be a flower burial. These finds were not, at the time, recognized as representing an archaic form of humans. However, they eventually gave the material to amateur naturalist Johann Carl Fuhlrott , who turned the fossils over to anatomist Hermann Schaaffhausen.
These are often taken by the media as showing Neanderthals were capable of symbolic thought,   or were "mental equals" to anatomically modern humans. Pre interbreeding hypotheses[ edit ] Until the early s, most scholars believed Neanderthals were not in the ancestry of living humans. These finds were not, at the time, recognized as representing an archaic form of humans. Neanderthals inhabited that continent long before the arrival of modern humans. These modern humans may have introduced a disease that contributed to the extinction of Neanderthals, and that may be added to other recent explanations for their extinction. Huxley in saw among Frisians the presence of what he believed to be Neanderthaloid skeletal and cranial characteristics as an evolutionary development from Neanderthal rather than as a result of interbreeding, saying that "the blond long-heads may exhibit one of the lines of evolution of the men of the Neanderthaloid type," yet he raised the possibility that the Frisians alternatively "may be the result of the admixture of the blond long-heads with Neanderthal men," thus separating "blond" from "Neanderthaloid. More recent historical events in Eurasia and the Americas show a similar pattern, where the unintentional introduction of viral or bacterial pathogens to unprepared populations has led to mass mortality and local population extinction. This would be counter to strict versions of the recent African origin theory , since it would imply that at least part of the genome of Europeans would descend from Neanderthals. This suggests a social structure where males remained in the same social group and females "married out". The most vocal proponent of the hybridisation hypothesis was Erik Trinkaus of Washington University. Neanderthals died out in Europe between 41, and 39, years ago, apparently coinciding with the start of a very cold period. Hawks has argued that the genetic similarity to Neanderthals may indeed be the result of both structure and interbreeding, as opposed to just one or the other. He strongly emphasised that all living humans are of mixed origins. Neanderthal bodies were well-suited for survival in a cold climate—their stocky chests and limbs stored body heat better than the Cro-Magnons. They are believed to have been a group killed and butchered about 50, years ago. This observation has prompted the hypothesis that whereas female humans interbreeding with male Neanderthals were able to generate fertile offspring, the progeny of female Neanderthals who mated with male humans were either rare, absent or sterile. Neanderthal genetics In , geneticists announced that interbreeding had likely taken place,   a result confirmed in Yet some scholars still argued for hybridisation with Neanderthals. Neanderthal range in light grey  Climate change[ edit ] About 55, years ago, the climate began to fluctuate wildly from extreme cold conditions to mild cold and back in a matter of decades. Flower pollen on the body of pre-Neanderthal Shanidar 4 , Iraq, had in been argued to be a flower burial. If contact between humans and Neanderthals occurred in Europe and Asia the first contact may have been devastating to the Neanderthal population, because they would have had little if any immunity to the African pathogens. The consensus on their behaviour ends there. Analysis of the mtDNA showed that the three adult males belonged to the same maternal lineage, while the three adult females belonged to different ones. This transcontinental movement is known as the Out of Africa model. Simpson says it was difficult to make broad assumptions based on the Turkana Boy; the fossil was very fragmented, he says, and men and women can have very different anatomical features.
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